Indefinite Articles – Definite Articles

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Indefinite Articles - Definite Articles
Indefinite Articles - Definite Articles

The word ‘A’ ‘An‘ and ‘The‘ are known as articles. They signal the coming of a noun. ‘A‘ and ‘An‘ are Indefinite articles as they usually refer to any member of group. ‘the’ is a definite article as it refers to a specific member of a group.In particular, ‘A‘ and ‘An‘ are used first.

A is used…….

1. Before a word beginning with a consonant
2. Before such words as have the sound of ‘yu’
3. Before the word ‘one’ which begins with the consonant sound of ‘wa’:
4. Before the names of professions.
5. Before certain numerical expressions:
6. In exclamations before singular countable nouns:
7. Words beginning with vowels(a,e,i,o,u):
8. Words beginning with silent ‘h’

1. Before a word beginning with a consonant

  • A mosque is a place of worship.
  • Christians worship in a church.
  • I saw a beggar riding a motorcycle.
  • A cripple was sitting near a gas station.
  • I asked a passerby where the museum was.

2. Before such words as have the sound of ‘yu’

  • A metre is a unit of length.
  • The United kingdom is a union of states.
  • It is useful bag for carrying my books.
  • You have a unique chance to go abroad.

3. Before the word ‘one’ which begins with the consonant sound of ‘wa’:

  • There is a one way traffic on the road today.
  • He gave me a one rupee note.
  • A one-eyed man was injured in a road accident.
  • I was once confronted by a tall fellow on a one way street.

4. Before the names of professions.

  • My mother is a teacher.
  • Ms Qureshi is a good artist.
  • She is a nurse.
  • Einstein was a great scientist.

5. Before certain numerical expressions:

  • A million people live in this country.
  • She paid a thousand thanks.
  • We invited a hundred people to the party.
  • The winner got a score of 320.
  • I have a dozen red rose.
  • The shopkeeper sold half a dozen eggs.
  • He bought a gross of pencils.
  • He returned me a total amount.

6. In exclamations before singular countable nouns:

  • What a nice day!
  • What a beautiful song!
  • What a terrible day!
  • What a charming girl.
  • ‘An’ is used before……

7. Words beginning with vowels(a,e,i,o,u):

  • An ant is a tiny insect.
  • Bano eats an orange daily.
  • Fawad likes an apple juice.
  • I am in need of an umbrella.
  • The hen lays an egg daily.
  • My brother is an electrical engineer.
  • She has an ugly face.

8. Words beginning with silent ‘h’

  • I have been waiting for an hour.
  • He’s an honest person.
  • Mr. Ali was an honourable man.
  • It was an honour to be invited here.
  • There is an hourly bus to Pakpattan.

‘A’ or ‘An’ is not used…………

1. Before uncountable nouns such as
2. Before abstract nouns such as, truth, beauty, happiness,fear, joy, peace etc.
3. Before a common noun in the singular used in a general sense:

1. Before uncountable nouns such as

  • Mother gave me good advice.
  • This is for your information.
  • I have no news of his death.
  • Tables are made of wood.
  • A book is made of paper.
  • Do you take milk in your tea?
  • I like music.
  • She has no money to buy food.

2. Before abstract nouns such as, truth, beauty, happiness,fear, joy, peace etc.

  • Beauty is truth.
  • Truth is beaut.
  • Happiness is bliss.
  • War is destructive.

3. Before a common noun in the singular used in a general sense:

  • Man is nortal.
  • The Hindus worship ldois.
  • He gave me milk.
  • The days fo kings and emperors are gene.
  • I read newspaper.

Use of ‘The’ Definite Articles

1. When we refer to some particular person or thing.
2. When a singular noun indicates a whole class.
3. As an Adverb in sentences like.
4. Before the names of rivers, seas, oceans, gulfs and Islands.
5. Before the names of certain Holy books.
6. Before the names of newspapers.
7. Before the names of things unique of their kind.
8. Before an adjective used as a noun.
9. Before the names of races or nations.
10. Before ordinals and superlatives.

The Definite Article ‘The’ is used……….

1. When we refer to some particular person or thing:

  • The snake bit the man.
  • The driver could not control the speed of the car.
  • The tea was very tasteful.

2. When a singular noun indicates a whole class:

  • The rose smells sweet.(all roses)
  • The dog is a faithful animal,(all dogs)
  • The cuckoo is a tazy bird.(all cuckoos)
  • The tiger is a furious animal.(all tigers)
  • The Suzuki has become a popular car.(all Suzukis)

3. As an Adverb in sentences like:

  • The deeper the well the warmer the water.
  • The more we urge, the more he resists.
  • The more the merrier.
  • The fewer the better.
  • The more noble, the more humble.

4. Before the names of rivers, seas, oceans, gulfs and Islands:

  • The River Nile.
  • The Black Sea.
  • The Allantic Ocean.
  • The Gulf of Mexico,
  • The British lsles.

5. Before the names of certain Holy books:

  • The Muslims follow the teachings of the Holy Quran.
  • The Bible is a book of the Christians.
  • The Geeta is a book of the Hindus.

6. Before the names of newspapers:

  • The Nation is my favourite newspaper.
  • I read the Pakistan Times daily.
  • The Dawn is published from karachi.

7. Before the names of things unique of their kind:

  • The sun sets in the west and rises in the east.
  • We sat in the sun all morning.
  • We can see the stars twinkilng in the sky at night.
  • The moon travels round the earth.
  • The earth moves round the sun.
  • The world is full of sorrow.
  • The weather today is rough.
  • The sky is cloudless.

8. Before an adjective used as a noun:

  • The rich should help the poor.
  • The wise despise the foolish.
  • The young and the old, the high and the low etc.

9. Before the names of races or nations:

  • The English defeated the french
  • The Irish people are deeply patriotic.

10. Before ordinals and superlatives:

  • This is the most useful part of the instrument.
  • This is the third time you have committed the mistake.
  • She was born on the fifteenth of August.
  • I had seen him on the first occasion.

OMISSION OF ARTICLE

1. ‘the’ Article is omitted before Proper nouns such as.
2. We do not use ‘the’ before the names of the games.
3. We do not Use ‘the’ before plural nouns when they are used in a general or a universal sense.
4. We do not use ‘the’ before the names of meals if they mean general meal.
5. We do not use ‘the’ before common nouns in general.
6. We do not use ‘the’ before abstract nouns in general sense.
7. ‘the’ is omitted in certain phrases consisting of a preposition followed by a noun.
8. ‘the’ is also not used before the names of material or substances of they are used in a general sense.

1. ‘the’ Article is omitted before Proper nouns such as:

  • Names of Cities: Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawer, Multan, Pakpattan, Sharif etc.
  • Names of countries: Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malayasia, England etc.
  • Names of Persons: Tanveer, Jahangir, Lubna, Asif Ali Zardari, Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, Obama, Mohan Singh etc.
  • Names of Mountain Peaks: Mount Everest, Mount Abu etc.
  • Names of streets: Ouaid-e-Azam Street, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar Street, Oxford Street, College Street etc.
  • Names of the days of the week: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
  • Names of the months of the year: February, March, April, May, June, July etc.

2. We do not use ‘the’ before the names of the games:

  • We enjoy cricket.
  • I Play football.
  • Chess is a game which requires practice.

3. We do not Use ‘the’ before plural nouns when they are used in a general or a universal sense:

  • Plants grow fast during rainy season.
  • Books give us knowledge.
  • Trains run irregularly in winter season.
  • Mangoes are sweet to eat.

4. We do not use ‘the’ before the names of meals if they mean general meal:

  • Breakfast is taken in the morning.
  • I won’t take dinner today.
  • He has already taken lunch.

5. We do not use ‘the’ before common nouns in general:

  • Transport is not available in the village.
  • Children are the best things in the word.
  • Woman is the ornament of the home.
  • Man is mortal but soul is divine
  • Car is an essential thing now a days

6. We do not use ‘the’ before abstract nouns in general sense:

  • Honesty is best policy
  • Simplicity is the virtue of life.
  • Goodness is an ornament of life.

7. ‘the’ is omitted in certain phrases consisting of a preposition followed by a noun:

  • On Earth
  • By Name
  • at midnight
  • on sale
  • by train
  • at night
  • in trouble
  • at sunrise
  • by steamer
  • at tea
  • at dinner
  • at home

8. ‘the’ is also not used before the names of material or substances of they are used in a general sense:

  • Desk is made of wood.
  • Curd is mads of milk.
  • Gold is better than any other metal.
  • Shoes are made of skins.
  • Similarly sand, cheese, butter, grass, meat, paper, rise, etc.

Worksheets of indefinite and definite articles

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