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Introduction to Single National curriculum 2021

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Single National Curriculum One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment

Single National Curriculum

One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment so that all children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education. Single National Curriculum is a step in that direction.

Source: www.mofept.gov.pk

Objectives

One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment which will ensure:

  • All children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education
  • Social Cohesion and National Integration
  • Alleviation of disparities in education content across the multiple streams
  • Equal opportunities for upward social mobility
  • Equity in education
  • Holistic development of children in the light of emerging international trends and local aspirations
  • Smooth inter-provincial mobility of teachers and students

Key Considerations

  • Teachings of Quran and Sunnah
  • Vision of Quaid and Iqbal
  • Constitutional framework
  • National Policies, Aspirations and National Standards
  • Alignment with the goals & targets of SDG-4
  • Emerging international trends in teaching, learning & assessment
  • Outcomes based approach
  • Focus on Values, Life Skills Based and Inclusive Education
  • Respect & appreciation for different cultures & Religions in local and global context
  • Promotion of intellectual, spiritual, aesthetic, emotional, social and physical development of learners
  • Move away from rote memorization & Focus on Project, Inquiry and Activity Based Learning
  • Development of 21st century skills including Analytical, Critical and Creative Thinking.
  • Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
  • Alignment with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

Phases of Single National Curriculum

Single National Curriculum is being developed in three phases:

  • Phase I: Development of SNC and textbooks   Pre I-V             (March 2021)
  • Phase II: Development of SNC and textbooks VI-VIII             (March 2022)
  • Phase III: Development of SNC and textbooks IX-XII            (March 2023)

Development Process of SNC

  • Before initiating development of SNC, multiple Comparative studies were conducted to align SNC with international standards.These include analysis of Pakistani Curriculum with Singapore and Cambridge Curriculum
  • Pakistan Learners’ Standards comparison with Singapore, Malaysia/Indonesia, & UK standards.
  • All the findings were incorporated in the SNC.

Consultation with Stakeholders

  • All federating units
  • public sector
  • private sector
  • Federal Government Educational Institutions (FGEIs) Cantts & Garrisons
  • Deeni Madaris
  • Cambridge University UK for English, Maths and Science
  • LUMS and AKU-IED

Workshops and National Conference

  • National workshops on Life-Skills Based Education, Critical Thinking and SDG-4
  • Four-Day Provincial and Area workshops in all federating units
  • The inputs and feedback received was incorporated in the SNC
  • Four-Day National Conference on Single National Curriculum from February 11-14, 2020 and the draft was finalized and signed by all the representatives from Federating Units, FGEIs, Private Sector, and Ittehad Tanzimat ul Madaris Pakistan.

Read also: Single Nation Curriculum 3D shapes

Introduction to Single National curriculum 2021

0

Single National Curriculum

One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment so that all children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education. Single National Curriculum is a step in that direction.

Objectives

One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment which will ensure:

  • All children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive high quality education
  • Social Cohesion and National Integration
  • Alleviation of disparities in education content across the multiple streams
  • Equal opportunities for upward social mobility
  • Equity in education
  • Holistic development of children in the light of emerging international trends and local aspirations
  • Smooth inter-provincial mobility of teachers and students

Key Considerations

  • Teachings of Quran and Sunnah
  • Vision of Quaid and Iqbal
  • Constitutional framework
  • National Policies, Aspirations and National Standards
  • Alignment with the goals & targets of SDG-4
  • Emerging international trends in teaching, learning & assessment
  • Outcomes based approach
  • Focus on Values, Life Skills Based and Inclusive Education
  • Respect & appreciation for different cultures & Religions in local and global context
  • Promotion of intellectual, spiritual, aesthetic, emotional, social and physical development of learners
  • Move away from rote memorization & Focus on Project, Inquiry and Activity Based Learning
  • Development of 21st century skills including Analytical, Critical and Creative Thinking.
  • Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
  • Alignment with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

Phases of Single National Curriculum

Single National Curriculum is being developed in three phases:

  • Phase I: Development of SNC and textbooks   Pre I-V             (March 2021)
  • Phase II: Development of SNC and textbooks VI-VIII             (March 2022)
  • Phase III: Development of SNC and textbooks IX-XII            (March 2023)

Development Process of SNC

  • Before initiating development of SNC, multiple Comparative studies were conducted to align SNC with international standards.These include analysis of Pakistani Curriculum with Singapore and Cambridge Curriculum
  • Pakistan Learners’ Standards comparison with Singapore, Malaysia/Indonesia, & UK standards.
  • All the findings were incorporated in the SNC.

Consultation with Stakeholders

  • All federating units
  • public sector
  • private sector
  • Federal Government Educational Institutions (FGEIs) Cantts & Garrisons
  • Deeni Madaris
  • Cambridge University UK for English, Maths and Science
  • LUMS and AKU-IED

Workshops and National Conference

  • National workshops on Life-Skills Based Education, Critical Thinking and SDG-4
  • Four-Day Provincial and Area workshops in all federating units
  • The inputs and feedback received was incorporated in the SNC
  • Four-Day National Conference on Single National Curriculum from February 11-14, 2020 and the draft was finalized and signed by all the representatives from Federating Units, FGEIs, Private Sector, and Ittehad Tanzimat ul Madaris Pakistan.

The Infinitive or to + Verb

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The Infinitive or to + Verb
The Infinitive or to + Verb

The Infinitive or to + Verb

The infinitive is the base form of a verb prec, ded by ‘to’ but cannot be main verb in a sentence. It is used to show purpose, intention or objective.

Examples

  • I want to study medicine(purpose)
  • I want to drink some water now. (intention)
  • We need a police force to maintain law and order. (objective)

The infinitive can be the subject or complement of a verb.

Examples

  • To read fast is difficult.
  • It is not quite easy to play tennis.
  • The children learn to speak English

Model Sentences

  • How old were you when you learnt how to drive?
  • I pretended to read the newspaper.
  • He will tell you what to do.
  • Would you like to go now?
  • He tends to lose his temper.
  • I was warned not to touch the switch.
  • She does not allow us to smoke in the house.
  • Can you help me to move this table?
  • We go to school to receive education.
  • Peace is necessary to the progress of a country.
  • The old man tried to board the bus.
  • He asked me to get up and go.
  • She likes to see beautiful scenes.
  • The job of a goalkeeper is to stop the ball.
  • I went to see him but he was not at home.

What is Gerund or Verbal Noun

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Gerund or Verbal Noun
Gerund or Verbal Noun

Gerund or Verbal Noun

The verb + ing form when used as a noun is called Gerund or Verbal Noun. It can be used both as the subject or the object of a verb.

Examples

  • Reading is a good hobby.
  • The Government is thinking of building a bridge.
  • The old woman was telling her beads.
  • My mother was fond of cooking.
  • I hate playing cards.

Model Sentences

  • Singing gives joy.
  • Gardening is my favourite avocation
  • Was Saba reading while walking?
  • It has started raining.
  • I do not want going out tonight.
  • She hates doing the ironing.
  • Please stop asking me questions.
  • They denied stealing the money.
  • We enjoy basking in the sun.
  • Crossing the railway track is prohibited.
  • Killing birds is a crucial sport.
  • Barking dogs seldom bite.
  • They carried on talking in a low tone.
  • Walking is good for health.
  • I got sprained my ankle while jumping.

What is the Imperative Mood

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The Imperative Mood
The Imperative Mood

The Imperative Mood

The imperative mood is used not only to Command but also request, to exhort and in the negative to forbid. the imperative in English has no distinct form: The verb itself is used for the second person singular and plural, the nominative case being generally omitted.

Examples

Command

  • Work hard to succeed.
  • Be off.
  • Give me a half bread.

Request

  • Please stay a little more.
  • Just give me a pencil and a piece of paper.
  • Just hold my cycle/bike.

Exhort

  • Respect your olders.
  • Chew your food well.
  • Always keep to tthe lift.

Forbid

  • Do not go out in the sun.
  • Do not tell a lie.
  • Do not copy others.

Model Sentences

  • Go and blow your nose.
  • Button up your coat.
  • Feed the horse with grass.
  • Keep everything in order.
  • Be punctual and attentive.
  • Do not find fault, with others.
  • Do not do such a mischief again.
  • Do not be proud of your riches/wealth
  • Do not be stubborn.
  • Love your youngers.
  • Mend your ways.
  • Always keep the idiots off.
  • Write as neatly as you can.
  • Cultivate the habit of working hard.
  • Please have something cold.

Conditiona or Hypothetical Sentences

  • We discuss differrent types of conditional sentences and the ways in which they are used. A conditional of hypothetical sentence consists of two parts and these parts are called clauses. The first part is the ‘if clause’ or ‘conditional clause’ while the second part has the ‘main clause’. the comma is put at the end of the ‘if clause’ or ‘conditional clause’.
  • Sometimes, ‘when’ or ‘in case’ or ‘had’ can be substitued for ‘if’
  • In negetive form, ‘unless’ is a substitute for ‘if’
  • Notice that the ‘if clause’ can either be at the beginning of sentences or after the ‘main clause’

Three types of conditional Sentences:

If both the parts of a conditional sentence are in present tense, use the first form of verb. Helping or auxiliary berb can also be used in ‘if clause.

Examples

  • If you apply force on glass, it breaks
  • The buses run empity, if the schools are closed.
  • If he is in the right mood, he writes well.
  • If there is too much noise, the birds get disturbed.
  • If he comes here, I go to bazaar.

If both the parts of a conditional sentence are in future tense, use the first form of verb in ‘if clause’ and ‘will’ or ‘shall’ in the ‘main clause’

  • Uniess he speaks the truth , I shall punish him.
  • if you throw a stone,the dog will bite you .
  • In case you take complete rest, you will recover soon.
  • If you work hard you will succeed.
  • If she goes to Karachi, she will bring toys for me.

If both the parts of a conditional sentence are in past tense.use the third fom of verb after ‘had’ (present perfect Tense) in ‘if clause’ and would have’ or caould have’ or inight have’ oxpress future in the ‘main cluse.

Examples

  • Had they attemued the meting they would have enjoued?
  • If you had not called me I would not have come there.
  • If he had studied? He would have? The examination.
  • Had you taken medicine you would have?
  • If she had int?

Model Sentences

  • If they play well, they will win the match.
  • Had he walked fast , he would not have missed the train.
  • If you water the fields in time, you get good crop.
  • If she had taken interest in studies she would have?
  • They would newer have known the truth, if they had not come.
  • If he comes, I acco? him to the city.
  • In case he comes home ?????
  • If he runs fast, he re??? in time.
  • If Ameria had not helped Israeel Arabs would have succeeded.
  • If she had gone to school on feat, she would have ?????in time.
  • If you lood for them, you will find them.
  • If you do not speak the truth, I shall not leave you.
  • If we had gone there, we could have met him.
  • If you had gone there, you might have met her.
  • If he had worked hard, he would have passed.

Use of “Used to”

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Used to
Used to

User of Used to

Examine these two sentences.

  1. We used to live in a nice house
  2. We used to live in a nice house.

Use of Used to

There is something wrong in the above sentences. What is wrong? ”We used to live in a nice house” is past and there is no present form. If we speak or write ”We use to live in a nice house” in the present, we will use the present tense ”We live in a nice house” and not ”We use to live in a nice house”.

  • ”We used to live in a nice house’
  • ”We use to live in a nice house”
  • ”We live in a nice house”.
  • ”We use to live in a nice house”

The negative form is ‘did not use to run’ but (used not to run) is also possible.

Examples

  • He did not use to live alone. Or He used not to live alone.
  • I did not use to waste my time Or I used not to waste my time.
  • You did not use to study hard. Or You used not to study hard.

The normal question form is Did (you) use to ….?

Examples

  • Did you use to eat a lot of sweets?
  • Did he use to do his work in time?
  • Did he use to watch T.V overyday?
  • Model Sentences
  • Aiesha used to teach us English.
  • The boys used to fly kites.
  • Jugnu used ot help his mother.
  • He always used to stand first in the killometre race.
  • Did the girl use to play with the baby?
  • Men used to live in caves.
  • We used to sing happy songs.
  • He did not use to go to mutton market.
  • Did you use to work in a bookshop?
  • He did not use to go to school on foot.
  • They used to beat us.
  • Did he use go to Lahore once a Week?
  • Sumaira and Ali used to go for a week.
  • The girls used to pick flowers.
  • He did not use to tell a lie.

Use of Some Anything Nothing

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''Some, Any and Nothing''hing''
''Some, Any and Nothing''

”Some, Any and Nothing”

Generally we use some in positive sentences while any in negative and interrogative sentences. Nothing is used for not having anything. in addition to it, somebody, anybody, somone, something, anything, anyone can also be used in the same sequence.

Examples of Some Anything Nothing

Some

  • We bought some flowers.
  • He got some bread.

Any

  • We did not buy any flowers.
  • Have you got nay money?

Nothing

  • I have nothing on.
  • The thief found nothing in the cupboard.

We use ‘Some’ in questions when we expect answer ‘yes’.

Examples

  • The cake is nice. Do you want some?
  • What’s wrong? Have you got something in your eye?

We use ‘Some’ in questions when we offer or ask things?

Examples

  • Can I have some suger,please?
  • Would you like something to eat?

In most questions we use ‘any’.

  • Do you have any brothers and sisters?
  • Has anybody seen my bag?

We use ‘any’ after if.

Examples

  • She asked if I had any milk?
  • If anyone has any questions. I will be pheased to answer them.

Note: Somebody, someone, anybody, anyone are singular words and we often use ‘they, them, ther, after these words.

Examples

  • Someone is here to see you.
  • Someone has forgotten their umbrella.
  • If anybody wants to leave early, they can.

Model Sentences

  • He has got some work to do.
  • I want some soup.
  • I bought some tomatoes and buttter.
  • There is some man at the door.
  • I want to give him some money.
  • Ask somebody else to help you.
  • Someone has broken the window.
  • There is something under the table. What is it?
  • He never does any work.
  • Is there any left?
  • I cannot find any answer.
  • There is not anybody there.
  • Did you see anyone you know?
  • Is there anything in the box?
  • Amina told nothing about this funny smell.

Introductory Word ‘There’

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Introductory Word 'There'
Introductory Word 'There'


Introductory Word ‘There’

The introductory word ‘There’ describes the existence of something at some place.

Instructions:

There is used as introductory word at the beginning of sentences without a signification or sense.

Examples

  • There is a nip the air.
  • There are sever Words in this sentence.
  • There is some flour in this sack.

The word ‘There’ is used too in the midst and at the end of sentences.

Examples

  • He is there by chance.
  • Send the man who is standing there.
  • The books are there.

Sometimes, the word ‘There’ is used simultaneously at the beginning and at the end of sentences.

Examples

  • There are splendid buildings there
  • There is a beehive there.
  • There is a poor man there.

Past and future form of ‘be’ with ‘There’ can also be used.

Examples

  • There were many people at the shrine of Hazrat Baba Farid.
  • There was a great rush in front of the booking office.
  • There were poisonous snacks in the charmer’s basket.

In negative statements,’not’ is followed by the helping verbs.

Examples

  • There is no more in this compartment.
  • There were not fifty boys in our class.
  • There is no other bread-winner at home.

In interrogative sentences, helping verbs are used as a subject at the beginning of sentences end question mark is placed at the end of sentences.

Examples

  • Are there no clouds in the sky?
  • Is there on any male member at your home?
  • Was there no any way except to run away?

Model Sentences:

  • There is enough oil in the lamps.
  • There are sixty seconds in one minute.
  • There was a bad smell in the room.
  • There were six chairs near the table.
  • There was a little truth in what he spoke.
  • There is a music concet at the Mehran hotel this evening.
  • There are many kinds of insects.
  • There was an old house by the side of the river.
  • There is no village at the foot of this hill.
  • There were a few people at the bus stop.
  • There is a bowl of chicken soup on the table.
  • Are there new apparatuses in this factory?
  • He is there or not.
  • There was a great hustle and bustle in the fields.
  • There is a big bridge over the river Chenab.

Introductory Word ‘It’

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Introductory Word 'It'
Introductory Word 'It'

Introductory Word ‘It’

Instructions:

The word ‘it’ is used at the beginning of sentences, followed by is. You can also use the past tense form of ‘be’ with ‘it’

  • It is a boring place.
  • It is a dangerous road.
  • It was a very special day for Najam.

‘It’ is used for lifeless things, animals, birds and infants.

  • It is a useful book.
  • It is a young dog.
  • It was a bird.
  • It is a pretty child.

We use ‘it’ to talk about distance, time,day,date, weather and unexpected calamities.

  • It is only ten minutes walk.
  • It is long past ten.
  • It was Friday that day.
  • It is the 21st of December today
  • It was pleasant weather at night.

‘It’ is used to emphasize a noun or a pronoun.

  • It is the cow which gives seers of milk everyday.
  • It was I who broke the silence.
  • It is the lesson that I learnt.

‘It’ is used in exclamatory sentences.

  • What a dreadful accident it was!
  • What a beautiful picture it is!
  • How a big house it is!

In negative sentences, ‘not’ come after the helping verbs.

  • It was not easy to climb over the fence.
  • It is not right to tell a lie.
  • It is not good to speak in a loud voice

In case of negative statement in interrogative sentences, ‘not’ comes after introductory word ‘it’.

  • Is it necessary to get a doctor’s certificate?
  • Is it very hot here during summer?
  • Was it not a difficult period?

Model Sentences:

  • It is good to speak the truth.
  • It looks like rain today.
  • It was not an off-day.
  • It is time to go now.
  • It is drizzling outside.
  • Is it an uphill task?
  • It is good to work hard.
  • Is it just a show?
  • It is harmful to eat more than enough.
  • It admits off no doubt.
  • It is very difficult for me to be a slave.
  • It is beyond my reach.
  • It is an examplary harbour.
  • It is a severe storm.
  • It was the most important

use of Wh-Words

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Wh-Words
Wh-Words

Wh-Words


What,Where, When, How, Why, Who, Whose, Whom and Which are called Wh-Words or Question Words. The below noted rules will make it clear when and how we use Question Words.

  • What did he say?(object of action)
  • What did he sing?(object of action)
  • Where did he go? (place of action)
  • Why have they come?(reason of action)
  • When did this incdent happen? (time of action)

Helping or modal verb is generally followed by the Wh-Words.

  • Who was in trouble yesterday?
  • Where will you go now Aslam?
  • What can we eat during illness?
  • When Shall we meet again?
  • How is this book different from that one?
  • If we want to ask a question about possession, the Question Word ‘whose’ is used.
  • Whose book is that?
  • Whose television did she bring here?
  • Whose watch did you give me?
  • Whose car did you purchase?
  • Whose shop is this?

When a question is about the subject, there is no need for a helping verb. ‘do’ or ‘did’, the Question Word itself is the subject. Then the main verb follows immediately after the Question Word.

  • Who wants to come with me?
  • What caused the blackout?
  • Who won this award?
  • Who told you the exact date of the event?
  • Who made this desk?
  • How did you get so dirty?
  • What post do you hold?
  • When does the Farid Express leave?
  • Where has the ‘barat'(marriage Procession)come from?
  • Which pickels do you have?
  • Whom do you like the best?
  • How did you trouble yourself?
  • Who is the captain of your cricket team?
  • Whose mother wrote this story?
  • Why do you speak nonsense? or Why do you chatter?
  • How can I disobey you?
  • What will you like to eat?
  • Who can fight against fate?
  • Whom did you see near the canal?
  • Which job has Rohail applied for?