Contractions in English Language

0
16
Spoken English

When we speak or write down notes, we use an apostrophe (’) only for the missing letter(s).

Example: She’s ill. (She is ill.) She’s gone away. (She has gone away.)

01. List of forms of auxiliary verbs:

‘m           (= am)                                  

I’m         (= I m)

‘s             (= is or has)                        

He’s       (= He is; he has)

‘re          (= are)                                 

You’re   (= You are)

‘ve          (= have)                              

We’ve   (= We have)

‘ll             (= will)                                 

You’ll     (= You will)

‘d            (= would or had)             

You’d    (= You would; You had)

The word contract means to become smaller, so the shortened forms are called contractions:

02. List of negative forms: (auxiliary verbs + not)

Isn’t                       (= is not)             

haven’t                  (= have not)      

shan’t                   (= shall not)

aren’t                    (= are not)         

hasn’t                   (= has not)         

Shouldn’t            (= should not)

wasn’t                  (= was not)        

hadn’t                   (= had not)        

mightn’t               (= might not)

weren’t                  (= were not)     

can’t                      (= cannot)          

mustn’t                  (= must not)

don’t                     (= do not)           

couldn’t               (= could not)     

needn’t                 (= need not)

doesn’t                 (= does not)      

won’t                    (= will not)         

daren’t                 (= dare not)

didn’t                   (= did not)          

wouldn’t              (= would not)                   

03. Negative forms for is and are can be:

He isn’t / She isn’t / it isn’t / or he’s not / she’s not / it’s not.

You aren’t / we aren’t / they aren’t or you’re not/ we’re not/ they’re not.

04. Some forms (especially ‘s) after question words  (who/what etc.) and after (that , there, here.):

who’s what’s where’s how’s that’s there’s here’s who’ll there’ll who’d:

Examples:

01           Who’s that girl?                                             (= who is)

02           What’s happened?                                         (= what has)

03           Where’s Nazia?                                              (= where is)

04           How’s the patient?                                         (= how is)

05           That’s right.                                                    (= that is)

06           That’s my sister.                                              (= that is)

07           There’s the bell for my class!                        (= there is)

08           Here’s my car.                                                 (= here is)

09           Who’ll carry your bag?                                   (= who will)

10           There’ll be many people at the party.       (= there will)

11           Who’d be over fifty by now?                      (= who had)

12           Who’ve come?                                               (= who have)

13           Who’m I to object?                                        (= who am)

05. Some common forms:

Bus

Omnibus

Phone

Telephone

Exam

Examination

Photo

Photograph

Gym

Gymnasium

Plane

Aeroplane

Points to Remember

01.          Contractions are used chiefly in conversation and in friendly letters. While writing a composition it is better to write the words in full.

02.          While using contractions always remember to use the correct number of the verb, for example, you should not say:

                X             “He don’t like playing rugby”.

                Say:        “He does not like playing rugby.”

Test Seven

(A) What is the full form of each of the following?

  1. He’ll come soon.                              …………………………………………..
  2. You mustn’t be late for school. ……………………………………….
  3. I’m sure you’re right.                     …………………………………………..
  4. They’ve just finished.                    …………………………………………..
  5. What’s he done?                             …………………………………………..
  6. What’s the matter?                        …………………………………………..
  7. She mightn’t agree with you.     …………………………………………..
  8. Who’d like to come here?            …………………………………………..
  9. There’ll be buns for tea today. ……………………………………….
  10. Who’s been sitting in my car?      …………………………………….

(B) Complete each sentence by using correct words from brackets.

  1. A dog wags ………. tail when ……… pleased.            (its, it’s)
  2. The teacher asked …. fountain pen it was.            (who’s, whose)
  3. I ……. got your cricket ball.                                     (haven’t, ain’t)
  4. Sabiha thinks ……. a lovely little puppy.                 (its, it’s)
  5. That’s the boy ……. father was injured.                  (who’s, whose)
  6. I hope you ……. wet.                                               (ain’t, aren’t)
  7. We want to know…to pay for the outing.              (who’s, whose)
  8. Sardar …….like swimming.                                      (doesn’t, don’t)
  9. ……. to say ……. fault it is?                                       (who’s, whose)
  10. They…come to our house very often now.           (doesn’t, don’t)

Please wait while flipbook is loading. For more related info, FAQs and issues please refer to DearFlip WordPress Flipbook Plugin Help documentation.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here