3. Present Perfect Tense

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3. Present Perfect Tense
3. Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Recognition:In Present Perfect Tense, the words Chuka Hai, Chuka Hoon, Chuka Hai, Chuka Hain, Giya Hai, Gai Hai, Kiya Hai, Kee Hai, Liya Hai, Lee Hai, Aai Hai, Aay Hain,Diya Hai, Dee Hai, etc. occur at the end of Urdu sentences.

Affirmative

Method of translation

  • The Third form of verb is used after has or have.
  • Has is used with (He, She, It) or a singular subject as: Girl, man, boy,
  • Have is used with (I, We, You, They) or plural subjects as: girls, men, boys.
  • In positive statements, the pattern is as: subject+have/has+Past Participle+the rest Of sentence

Note: sentences ending in Hai, Hoon, Hain in Past Indefinite Tense give a complete sense of Present Perfect Tense as:

  • Her birthday arrived at last.(Past Indefinite Tense)
  • Her birthday has arrived at last. (Present Perfect Tense).
  • Special note: We add Hai, Hoon, Hain, at the end of Urdu Sentences in Past Indefinite Tense to make Present Perfect Tense. But if time factor is involved therein,this Rule is not applicable in any case as:
  • He came to meet me yesterday.
  • Shaista passed his middle school examination last year.
  • I completed this book two months ago.
  • Chauhan sold the house in May 2006.
  • Munir knocked the door yesterday.
  • You can see that the words like yesterday, last year, two months ago, May 2006 etc. indicate the action took place in the past, the present perfect tense, therefore, would be generally unsuitable.

Examples

  • The train has left.
  • He has caught cold.
  • The bus has broken down.
  • He has lost his place in the team.
  • He has isolated himself from society.

Study the following interrogative sentences carefully:

  • He has got dead tired.
  • She has missed the train.
  • The sun has hidden in the clouds.
  • He has passed the oral test.
  • His appetite has lost.
  • She has cleared her debt.
  • His appetite has repressed.
  • He has lost his appetite.
  • All have rejoiced at seeing him.
  • She has cleared her debt.
  • We have defended our rights.
  • He has directed me to be silent.
  • The doctor has brought the first-aid box.
  • I have said the prayer.
  • He has died of a dog’s death.
  • We have given him a lot of money.
  • A passenger has got down the train.
  • His cow’s four legs have gone dry.

Negative

Method of translation

  • In negative statements ‘not’ is used after has or have, the pattern is as: subject+has or have+not+third form to the verb+the rest of sentence
  • The short form ‘has not’ is=hasn’t. The short form of ‘have not’ is=haven’t.

Examples

  • They have not set up new office in Lahore.
  • We have not apologized to him.
  • You have not taken the examination in Mathematics.
  • He has not given me everything.
  • They have not fought tooth and nail.

Study the following interrogative sentences carefully:

  • He has not made the speech offhand.
  • I have not made this picture.
  • We have not seen such a generous man.
  • She has not brought a pail of water.
  • He has not committed a crime.
  • I have not seen him since long.
  • We have not got back our land.
  • The bride has not brought any dowry with her.
  • Maulana has not called the people to prayer.
  • The headmaster has not signed the letters.
  • I have not driven him into a corner.
  • He has not become able to take part in the match.
  • A gardener has not put sand into a flowerpot.
  • The concert programme has not started.
  • The resistance has not petered out.

Interrogative

Method of translation

  • 1.’has’ or ‘have’ is placed at the beginning of sentences.
  • 2.If there is a negative statement in interrogative Sentences, ‘not’ is placed immediately after the subject.
  • 3.In interrogative sentences, the pattern is as: has/have+subject+the third form of verb+the rest of sentences

Examples

  • Has the bulb gone out?
  • Have you not informed us about danger?
  • Has he done this work owing to jealousy?
  • Has jameel received your message?
  • Has the traitor met his end?

Study the following interrogative sentences carefully:

  • Have they exaggerated this matter?
  • Has America lost dignity in the world?
  • Has the doctor diagnosed your disease?
  • Has the teacher beaten the students well?
  • Has the train made the speed of eighty miles per hour?
  • Has the government taken measures against the rebels?
  • Have you not heard Tasawar Khanum on radio?
  • Has he not eaten another morsel?
  • Has the continuous loss hurt him

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